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User Oriented Design

Design for the Target Audience


When designing websites, user characteristics and usage patterns should be taken into account.


Adapting website design to the target audience is crucial for the success of a website. Websites that do not consider user needs tend to fail, regardless of the visual appeal or the technologies used. A good website is not only defined by its aesthetics or technologies but also by its usability and content.

Organizations may acquire new services and tasks over time. Therefore, a successful website should be designed with the potential for future expansion in mind.


  • Visual components, typography, and menu design should be prepared to suit user characteristics.
  • The content presented to users should be relevant to the website's purpose.
  • Content should be tailored to the target audience and their tasks.
  • Content should not be overshadowed by visual design components.
  • Use a scalable technical and navigation structure to accommodate expansion.


  • ISO 9241-151 / 7.1.3 – Appropriateness of content for the target group and tasks

Useful Resources

Significance Level



The appearance of the separate pages of the sample site prepared for adults and children is designed to be suitable for the target audience.
User Profiles


User personas representing the target audience should be developed during the design process.


Before developing a website, a detailed analysis of user characteristics is necessary to understand user needs and expectations accurately. Therefore, user personas representing the website's target audience should be created. Instead of creating a few personas that represent everyone, personas should be created that provide examples from different target audiences.

Personas represent typical user characters that are expected to use the website. They help in understanding the target audience and making decisions about user characters. Creating a persona that closely matches the target audience will increase the website's ability to meet user needs and expectations. Separating user groups by creating personas that represent different groups is important for improving the quality of service provided to these groups.


  • Personas should be created with real users in mind, who are the target audience of the website.
  • Consider the actions users can perform on the website when creating personas.
  • Include information such as age, gender, marital status, profession, income, environment, personal characteristics, education, social class, technology usage, hobbies, and interests in the personas.
  • Scenarios of use for personas can be briefly described in written form and shared with the site design/development team.
  • In larger projects, preliminary interviews, prototype tests, and similar activities can be conducted with real users to interact with the profiles.


  • ISO 9241-210 / Human-centred design for interactive systems
  • ISO 9241-151 / 6.3 – Analysing the target user groups

Useful Resources

Significance Level



In the example image, a persona has been created to analyze the needs of the target audience.
User Expectations


Websites should be designed or updated considering the expectations of users.


Users use public websites for specific purposes and they want to accomplish those purposes. In addition, users have general public expectations and expectations for software/hardware trends (such as mobile applications). Users are the main stakeholders in website design. Therefore, it is essential to consider users from the design and planning stages of the website.

Analytical studies with users selected from the target audience will help refine the website design. Accurately identifying user needs during the design and development phase is essential for preventing potential usability problems. Problems that may arise in later stages can be resolved early through communication and testing with users, avoiding significant expenses and effort. Corporate development and technological innovation units often lead to target shifts, and details can overshadow the main goals.


  • Before starting to develop a website, a needs analysis should be made; the needs and expectations of the target audience should be determined in detail.
  • Feedback should be obtained from the users about the design of the site through the prototype screens developed.
  • Necessary updates should be made by interacting with the users after the website is started to be used.
  • Test documents and recorded videos used to observe user experiences should be stored in an environment accessible to developers.


  • ISO-9241-210 Human-Centred Design Standard
  • ISO-9241-151 / 6.2 – Determining the purpose of a Web application
  • ISO-9241-151 / 6.4 – Analysing the users’ goals and tasks
  • ISO-9241-151 / 6.5 – Matching application purpose and user goals

Useful Resources

Significance Level



In the example site, the components of the homepage are designed in line with the expectations of the target audience.

(SGE) Cyber Security Institute

The Cyber Security Institute, which was established to carry out studies to increase the national cyber security capacity, carries out research and development activities in the field of cyber security; carries out solutions-oriented projects for military institutions, public institutions and organizations and the private sector.

The main fields of activity of our institute, which has made a significant contribution to the creation of cyber security knowledge and tactical infrastructure in our country with many successful projects to date, are secure software development, penetration tests and vulnerability analysis.

6-yze card logo

(IZE) Artificial Intelligence Institute

Artificial Intelligence Institute is the first institute established within the scope of TUBITAK centers and institutes, which cuts the sectors and research fields horizontally and focuses directly on the emerging technology field. For this reason, it constitutes an innovative model in terms of both the open innovation and co-development approach of the institute and its focus on emerging technology.

Artificial Intelligence Institute aims to develop core technologies in the field of artificial intelligence and bring these innovations from the forefront of science to the use of the industry as soon as possible. Focusing on the transformative potential of artificial intelligence, it will continue to play its part in pioneering efforts to create and sustain artificial intelligence-based innovation, growth and productivity in Turkey. Working with industry and public institutions in Turkey, together with other organizations within the artificial intelligence ecosystem, spreading the use of artificial intelligence and increasing the workforce specialized in this field are among its primary goals.



By joining TÜBİTAK BİLGEM as a Researcher, you can contribute to developments in the fields of information technology, information security, and advanced electronics. You'll have the opportunity to make your mark on innovations, closely follow advancements, enhance your skills, and shape your future by advancing in your career.

You can apply to our currently open positions through the TÜBİTAK Job Application System .

Application Conditions

Conditions for Job Application:

  • Foreign language proficiency: Attaining appropriate scores in the exam types specified in the announcement or studying in a program that is 100% in English for undergraduate education.
  • Fulfilling specific requirements stated in the announcement (such as undergraduate department, years of experience, expertise, etc.).
  • Satisfying the formula score:

For Candidates with Less than 3 Years of Experience:

Weighted Graduation Average + (10,000 / University Placement Exam Ranking) + Additional Score* >= 3.20


For Candidates with 3 Years and More of Experience:

Weighted Graduation Average + (10,000 / University Placement Exam Ranking) + 5*[1 / (1 + e^(5 - years of experience) ) ] + Additional Score* >= 3.20

*Candidates who have achieved rankings and awards in national and international competitions will receive an additional score of 0.3.


Competence Centers

Candidate Researcher

Students in the 3rd and 4th years of relevant engineering departments at universities can apply to our Part-Time Candidate Researcher positions through our Job Application System at By doing so, they can gain work experience at TÜBİTAK BİLGEM during their university years.

This program does not have an end date. Candidate Researcher personnel working part-time during their university period can seamlessly transition to full-time employment as Researcher personnel at TÜBİTAK BİLGEM without interrupting their career journey after graduating from the undergraduate program.

Application Conditions

Conditions for the Candidate Researcher Program:

  • Being a 3rd or 4th-year student in the relevant departments specified in the announcements at universities.
  • Foreign language proficiency: Achieving appropriate scores in the exam types specified in the announcement or studying in a program that is 100% in English for undergraduate education.
  • Satisfying the formula score:

Weighted Graduation Average + (10,000/University Placement Exam Ranking) + Additional Score* >= 3.20

*Candidates who have achieved rankings and awards in national and international competitions will receive an additional score of 0.3.


Discover institutes laboratories technologies products projects of BİLGEM.


TÜBİTAK BİLGEM builds its basic strategy for the future on qualified knowledge and qualified people focused on national targets in the research, technology development and innovation ecosystem.

Starting from the understanding that "the most important resource of a country is generally people, specifically scientists," TÜBİTAK encourages and supports our youth from an early age. In this context, providing young minds with early exposure to technology production is crucial for the success of our National Technology Move. Accordingly, TÜBİTAK BİLGEM offers internship opportunities to undergraduate students from universities every year.

You can follow internship announcements and submit your applications through the Career Gateway at

You can access frequently asked questions about internships at TÜBİTAK BİLGEM from here. 

Application Conditions
  • Students enrolled in undergraduate (2nd year and above) and associate degree programs in departments offering education in universities and conducting insurance procedures through the higher education institution to which they are affiliated can benefit from the internship opportunity.
  • For undergraduate and associate degree students, a minimum Weighted Grade Point Average (GPA) of 2.50 out of 4 is required. The GPA of candidates with a 100-point system is converted to a 4-point system based on the "Conversion Table of Grades from the 4-Point System to the 100-Point System" published by the Higher Education Council.
  • There is no requirement for a foreign language certificate during the internship application process.
  • Students enrolled in departments such as Forensic Computing Engineering, Computer Sciences, Computer Science and Engineering, Computer Engineering, Computer and Informatics, Computer and Software Engineering, Information Systems Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Control Engineering, Control and Computer Engineering, Control and Automation Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics Engineering, Telecommunication Engineering, or Software Engineering in universities can apply for internships.

Internship applications are accepted between December and January, and the internship period covers June, July, and August.



Scholar assignments are made for research and development activities for undergraduate, master's, doctoral students, and post-doctoral researchers. In our center, scholars are appointed for practical purposes in externally funded, TARAL, or European Union projects.

You can contact us via the email address to apply to be a scholar.
Application Conditions

(1) The conditions for undergraduate scholars in externally funded projects conducted by the institution are specified below:

  •  Being a student continuing undergraduate education at higher education institutions established in Turkey (excluding foreign language preparatory students).
  • Having a weighted cumulative GPA for previous years, excluding preparatory years, based on the university's grading system, which satisfies the formula score and foreign language requirements in the recruitment criteria.
  • Completing at least the first semester of the first year of undergraduate education.
  • Having a GPA of "+3.00" and a University Placement Exam Ranking of "10,000 ≥" for undergraduate general average.
  • For foreign students placed in Turkish universities without taking the ÖSYM exam or for those who completed undergraduate education through exams such as Vertical Transfer Exam, the lowest university placement ranking of the department from the year the candidate started the undergraduate program is considered in the ranking formula.

(2) The conditions for master's degree scholars in externally funded projects conducted by the institution are specified below:

  • Being a student continuing master's degree education at higher education institutions established in Turkey (excluding special students and foreign language preparatory students).
  • Currently pursuing a master's degree in the project's field of responsibility.

(3) The conditions for doctoral students in externally funded projects conducted by the institution are specified below:

  • Being a student continuing doctoral education at higher education institutions established in Turkey (excluding special students and foreign language preparatory students).
  • Currently pursuing a doctorate in the project's field of responsibility or conducting a doctorate in areas determined within the framework of the YÖK-TÜBİTAK Doctoral Program Project Collaboration Protocol. (Students in medical specialization and artistic proficiency are accepted as doctoral students.)

MILSEC 4 - Secure IP Terminal


While the MİLSEC-4 terminal offers an up-to-date solution for next-generation secure communication (voice, data and video) in IP networks, it provides an uninterrupted communication service by maintaining the compatibility of secure voice communication in PSTN networks with PSTN secure phones in use.

Configuration, surveillance and software update processes of MILSEC-4 terminals are carried out securely remotely using the Security Management Center (GYM). MİLSEC-4 terminal is capable of IP Network Key Loading (IPAAY) through secure communication with GYM without the need for an additional device.

MİLSEC-4 terminals are interoperable with MİLSEC-1A and MİLSEC-2 phones and offer the opportunity to replace MİLSEC-1A and MİLSEC-2 phones without interruption in the gradual transformation of PSTN networks to next generation IP networks.


  • End-to-end secure voice communication in PSTN networks
  • End-to-end secure voice, image and data transmission in IP networks
  • NATO SCIP compliance on IP networks
  • Compatibility with commercial SIP products
  • Interoperability with MILSEC1A and MILSEC2 secure phones
  • National and AES crypto algorithms
  • Remote software update
  • Easy operation with touch screen

It is subject to the sales license to be given by the Ministry of National Defense.